UGC NET @ Pratishtha Education

The National Testing Agency (NTA) will release the UGC NET notification for the June session exam in March 2024. The candidates can apply for the UGC NET between March and April 2024. To apply for the UGC NET June 2024 exam the candidates have to pay INR 1150 (unreserved category), INR 600 (OBC category), and INR 325 (SC/ ST/ PwD/ Third Gender).

The UGC NET 2024 exam will be held for a total of 83 subjects. The UGC NET application and notification will be available on the UGC NET official website- The candidates can download their e-certificate using their application number and date of birth on the official website. The JRF certificate remains valid for 3 years, whereas, the UGC NET certificate is valid for a lifetime. For more than three decades, pratishtha has been the top choice when it comes to a UGC-NET coaching centre. Of all the UGC-NET coaching centres in bangalore , pratishtha has consistently held the title of the best UGC-NET coaching centre. With multiple course options, pratishtha provides test preparation tailored to every student's needs. From scholarships for UGC-NET coaching fees to expert faculty, pratishtha aims to help students at every step of their UGC-NET journey.

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Experience transformative learning with our dedicated team of educators at Pathfinder Academy. We combine passionate expertise with personalized guidance to empower students of all backgrounds. Our highly-qualified teachers, boasting years of experience, tailor their approach to meet individual needs, fostering scientific exploration and competitive confidence.

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01st April 2024

08th July, 2024 -Noida, NCR

01st April 2024 onwards

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A hybrid of English and Hindi

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Management – Concept, Process, Theories and Approaches, Management Roles and Skills Functions – Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Coordinating and Controlling. Communication – Types, Process and Barriers. Decision Making – Concept, Process, Techniques and Tools Organisation Structure and Design – Types, Authority, Responsibility, Centralisation, Decentralisation and Span of Control Managerial Economics – Concept & Importance Demand analysis – Utility Analysis, Indifference Curve, Elasticity & Forecasting Market Structures – Market Classification & Price Determination National Income – Concept, Types and Measurement Inflation – Concept, Types and Measurement Business Ethics & CSR Ethical Issues & Dilemma Corporate Governance Value Based Organisation

Organisational Behaviour – Significance & Theories Individual Behaviour – Personality, Perception, Values, Attitude, Learning and Motivation Group Behaviour – Team Building, Leadership, Group Dynamics Interpersonal Behaviour & Transactional Analysis Organizational Culture & Climate Work Force Diversity & Cross Culture Organisational Behaviour Emotions and Stress Management Organisational Justice and Whistle Blowing Human Resource Management – Concept, Perspectives, Influences and Recent Trends Human Resource Planning, Recruitment and Selection, Induction, Training and Development Job Analysis, Job Evaluation and Compensation Management

Strategic Role of Human Resource Management Competency Mapping & Balanced Scoreboard Career Planning and Development Performance Management and Appraisal Organization Development, Change & OD Interventions Talent Management & Skill Development Employee Engagement & Work Life Balance Industrial Relations: Disputes & Grievance Management, Labour Welfare and Social Security Trade Union & Collective Bargaining International Human Resource Management – HR Challenge of International Business Green HRM

Accounting Principles and Standards, Preparation of Financial Statements Financial Statement Analysis – Ratio Analysis, Funds Flow and Cash Flow Analysis, DuPont Analysis Preparation of Cost Sheet, Marginal Costing, Cost Volume Profit Analysis Standard Costing & Variance Analysis Financial Management, Concept & Functions Capital Structure – Theories, Cost of Capital, Sources and Finance Budgeting and Budgetary Control, Types and Process, Zero base Budgeting Leverages – Operating, Financial and Combined Leverages, EBIT–EPS Analysis, Financial Breakeven Point & Indifference Level

Value & Returns – Time Preference for Money, Valuation of Bonds and Shares, Risk and Returns; Capital Budgeting – Nature of Investment, Evaluation, Comparison of Methods; Risk and Uncertainly Analysis Dividend – Theories and Determination Mergers and Acquisition – Corporate Restructuring, Value Creation, Merger Negotiations, Leveraged Buyouts, Takeover Portfolio Management – CAPM, APT Derivatives – Options, Option Payoffs, Option Pricing, Forward Contracts & Future Contracts Working Capital Management – Determinants, Cash, Inventory, Receivables and Payables Management, Factoring International Financial Management, Foreign exchange market

Strategic Management – Concept, Process, Decision & Types Strategic Analysis – External Analysis, PEST, Porter’s Approach to industry analysis, Internal Analysis – Resource Based Approach, Value Chain Analysis Strategy Formulation – SWOT Analysis, Corporate Strategy – Growth, Stability, Retrenchment, Integration and Diversification, Business Portfolio Analysis - BCG, GE Business Model, Ansoff’s Product Market Growth Matrix Strategy Implementation – Challenges of Change, Developing Programs Mckinsey 7s Framework Marketing – Concept, Orientation, Trends and Tasks, Customer Value and Satisfaction Market Segmentation, Positioning and Targeting Product and Pricing Decision – Product Mix, Product Life Cycle, New Product development, Pricing – Types and Strategies Place and promotion decision – Marketing channels and value networks, VMS, IMC, Advertising and Sales promotion

Consumer and Industrial Buying Behaviour: Theories and Models of Consumer Behaviour Brand Management – Role of Brands, Brand Equity, Equity Models, Developing a Branding Strategy; Brand Name Decisions, Brand Extensions and Loyalty Logistics and Supply Chain Management, Drivers, Value creation, Supply Chain Design, Designing and Managing Sales Force, Personal Selling Service Marketing – Managing Service Quality and Brands, Marketing Strategies of Service Firms Customer Relationship Marketing – Relationship Building, Strategies, Values and Process Retail Marketing – Recent Trends in India, Types of Retail Outlets. Emerging Trends in Marketing – Concept of e-Marketing, Direct Marketing, Digital Marketing and Green Marketing International Marketing – Entry Mode Decisions, Planning Marketing Mix for International Markets

Statistics for Management: Concept, Measures Of Central Tendency and Dispersion, Probability Distribution – Binominal, Poison, Normal and Exponential Data Collection & Questionnaire Design Sampling – Concept, Process and Techniques Hypothesis Testing – Procedure; T, Z, F, Chi-square tests Correlation and Regression Analysis Operations Management – Role and Scope Facility Location and Layout – Site Selection and Analysis, Layout – Design and Process Enterprise Resource Planning – ERP Modules, ERP implementation Scheduling; Loading, Sequencing and Monitoring Quality Management and Statistical Quality Control, Quality Circles, Total Quality Management – KAIZEN, Benchmarking, Six Sigma; ISO 9000 Series Standards Operation Research – Transportation, Queuing Decision Theory, PERT / CPM

Service Marketing – Managing Service Quality and Brands, Marketing Strategies of Service Firms Customer Relationship Marketing – Relationship Building, Strategies, Values and Process Retail Marketing – Recent Trends in India, Types of Retail Outlets. Emerging Trends in Marketing – Concept of e-Marketing, Direct Marketing, Digital Marketing and Green Marketing International Marketing – Entry Mode Decisions, Planning Marketing Mix for International Markets Unit –VIII Statistics for Management: Concept, Measures Of Central Tendency and Dispersion, Probability Distribution – Binominal, Poison, Normal and Exponential Data Collection & Questionnaire Design Sampling – Concept, Process and Techniques Hypothesis Testing – Procedure; T, Z, F, Chi-square tests Correlation and Regression Analysis Operations Management – Role and Scope Facility Location and Layout – Site Selection and Analysis, Layout – Design and Process Enterprise Resource Planning – ERP Modules, ERP implementation Scheduling; Loading, Sequencing and Monitoring Quality Management and Statistical Quality Control, Quality Circles, Total Quality Management – KAIZEN, Benchmarking, Six Sigma; ISO 9000 Series Standards Operation Research – Transportation, Queuing Decision Theory, PERT / CPM Unit –IX International Business – Managing Business in Globalization Era; Theories of International Trade; Balance of payment Foreign Direct Investment – Benefits and Costs Multilateral regulation of Trade and Investment under WTO International Trade Procedures and Documentation; EXIM Policies Role of International Financial Institutions – IMF and World Bank Information Technology – Use of Computers in Management Applications; MIS, DSS Artificial Intelligence and Big Data Data Warehousing, Data Mining and Knowledge Management – Concepts Managing Technological Change

Computer Science

Mathematical Logic: Propositional and Predicate Logic, Propositional Equivalences, Normal Forms, Predicates and Quantifiers, Nested Quantifiers, Rules of Inference. Sets and Relations: Set Operations, Representation and Properties of Relations, Equivalence Relations, Partially Ordering. Counting, Mathematical Induction and Discrete Probability: Basics of Counting, Pigeonhole Principle, Permutations and Combinations, Inclusion- Exclusion Principle, Mathematical Induction, Probability, Bayes’ Theorem. Group Theory: Groups, Subgroups, Semi Groups, Product and Quotients of Algebraic Structures, Isomorphism, Homomorphism, Automorphism, Rings, Integral Domains, Fields, Applications of Group Theory. Graph Theory: Simple Graph, Multigraph, Weighted Graph, Paths and Circuits, Shortest Paths in Weighted Graphs, Eulerian Paths and Circuits, Hamiltonian Paths and Circuits, Planner graph, Graph Coloring, Bipartite Graphs, Trees and Rooted Trees, Prefix Codes, Tree Traversals, Spanning Trees and Cut-Sets. Boolean Algebra: Boolean Functions and its Representation, Simplifications of Boolean Functions. Optimization: Linear Programming - Mathematical Model, Graphical Solution, Simplex and Dual Simplex Method, Sensitive Analysis; Integer Programming, Transportation and Assignment Models, PERT-CPM: Diagram Representation, Critical Path Calculations, Resource Levelling, Cost Consideration in Project Scheduling.

Digital Logic Circuits and Components: Digital Computers, Logic Gates, Boolean Algebra, Map Simplifications, Combinational Circuits, Flip-Flops, Sequential Circuits, Integrated Circuits, Decoders, Multiplexers, Registers and Counters, Memory Unit. Data Representation: Data Types, Number Systems and Conversion, Complements, Fixed Point Representation, Floating Point Representation, Error Detection Codes, Computer Arithmetic - Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication and Division Algorithms. Register Transfer and Microoperations: Register Transfer Language, Bus and Memory Transfers, Arithmetic, Logic and Shift Microoperations. Basic Computer Organization and Design: Stored Program Organization and Instruction Codes, Computer Registers, Computer Instructions, Timing and Control, Instruction Cycle, Memory-Reference Instructions, Input-Output, Interrupt. Programming the Basic Computer: Machine Language, Assembly Language, Assembler, Program Loops, Subroutines, Input-Output Programming. Microprogrammed Control: Control Memory, Address Sequencing, Design of Control Unit. Central Processing Unit: General Register Organization, Stack Organization, Instruction Formats, Addressing Modes, RISC Computer, CISC Computer. Pipeline and Vector Processing: Parallel Processing, Pipelining, Arithmetic Pipeline, Instruction Pipeline, Vector Processing Array Processors. Input-Output Organization: Peripheral Devices, Input-Output Interface, Asynchronous Data Transfer, Modes of Transfer, Priority Interrupt, DMA, Serial Communication. Memory Hierarchy: Main Memory, Auxillary Memory, Associative Memory, Cache Memory, Virtual Memory, Memory Management Hardware. Multiprocessors: Characteristics of Multiprocessors, Interconnection Structures, Interprocessor Arbitration, Interprocessor Communication and Synchronization, Cache Coherence, Multicore Processors.

Language Design and Translation Issues: Programming Language Concepts, Paradigms and Models, Programming Environments, Virtual Computers and Binding Times, Programming Language Syntax, Stages in Translation, Formal Transition Models. Elementary Data Types: Properties of Types and Objects; Scalar and Composite Data Types. Programming in C: Tokens, Identifiers, Data Types, Sequence Control, Subprogram Control, Arrays, Structures, Union, String, Pointers, Functions, File Handling, Command Line Argumaents, Preprocessors. 3 Object Oriented Programming: Class, Object, Instantiation, Inheritance, Encapsulation, Abstract Class, Polymorphism. Programming in C++: Tokens, Identifiers, Variables and Constants; Data types, Operators, Control statements, Functions Parameter Passing, Virtual Functions, Class and Objects; Constructors and Destructors; Overloading, Inheritance, Templates, Exception and Event Handling; Streams and Files; Multifile Programs. Web Programming: HTML, DHTML, XML, Scripting, Java, Servlets, Applets. Computer Graphics: Video-Display Devices, Raster-Scan and Random-Scan Systems; Graphics Monitors, Input Devices, Points and Lines; Line Drawing Algorithms, Mid-Point Circle and Ellipse Algorithms; Scan Line Polygon Fill Algorithm, Boundary-Fill and Flood- Fill. 2-D Geometrical Transforms and Viewing: Translation, Scaling, Rotation, Reflection and Shear Transformations; Matrix Representations and Homogeneous Coordinates; Composite Transforms, Transformations Between Coordinate Systems, Viewing Pipeline, Viewing Coordinate Reference Frame, Window to View-Port Coordinate Transformation, Viewing Functions, Line and Polygon Clipping Algorithms. 3-D Object Representation, Geometric Transformations and Viewing: Polygon Surfaces, Quadric Surfaces, Spline Representation, Bezier and B-Spline Curves; Bezier and B-Spline Surfaces; Illumination Models, Polygon Rendering Methods, Viewing Pipeline and Coordinates; General Projection Transforms and Cipping.

Database System Concepts and Architecture: Data Models, Schemas, and Instances; Three-Schema Architecture and Data Independence; Database Languages and Interfaces; Centralized and Client/Server Architectures for DBMS. Data Modeling: Entity-Relationship Diagram, Relational Model - Constraints, Languages, Design, and Programming, Relational Database Schemas, Update Operations and Dealing with Constraint Violations; Relational Algebra and Relational Calculus; Codd Rules. SQL: Data Definition and Data Types; Constraints, Queries, Insert, Delete, and Update Statements; Views, Stored Procedures and Functions; Database Triggers, SQL Injection. Normalization for Relational Databases: Functional Dependencies and Normalization; Algorithms for Query Processing and Optimization; Transaction Processing, Concurrency Control Techniques, Database Recovery Techniques, Object and Object-Relational Databases; Database Security and Authorization. Enhanced Data Models: Temporal Database Concepts, Multimedia Databases, Deductive Databases, XML and Internet Databases; Mobile Databases, Geographic Information Systems, Genome Data Management, Distributed Databases and Client-Server Architectures. Data Warehousing and Data Mining: Data Modeling for Data Warehouses, Concept Hierarchy, OLAP and OLTP; Association Rules, Classification, Clustering, Regression, 4 Support Vector Machine, K-Nearest Neighbour, Hidden Markov Model, Summarization, Dependency Modeling, Link Analysis, Sequencing Analysis, Social Network Analysis. Big Data Systems: Big Data Characteristics, Types of Big Data, Big Data Architecture, Introduction to Map-Reduce and Hadoop; Distributed File System, HDFS. NOSQL: NOSQL and Query Optimization; Different NOSQL Products, Querying and Managing NOSQL; Indexing and Ordering Data Sets; NOSQL in Cloud.

System Software: Machine, Assembly and High-Level Languages; Compilers and Interpreters; Loading, Linking and Relocation; Macros, Debuggers. Basics of Operating Systems: Operating System Structure, Operations and Services; System Calls, Operating-System Design and Implementation; System Boot. Process Management: Process Scheduling and Operations; Interprocess Communication, Communication in Client–Server Systems, Process Synchronization, Critical-Section Problem, Peterson’s Solution, Semaphores, Synchronization. Threads: Multicore Programming, Multithreading Models, Thread Libraries, Implicit Threading, Threading Issues. CPU Scheduling: Scheduling Criteria and Algorithms; Thread Scheduling, Multiple- Processor Scheduling, Real-Time CPU Scheduling. Deadlocks: Deadlock Characterization, Methods for Handling Deadlocks, Deadlock Prevention, Avoidance and Detection; Recovery from Deadlock. Memory Management: Contiguous Memory Allocation, Swapping, Paging, Segmentation, Demand Paging, Page Replacement, Allocation of Frames, Thrashing, Memory-Mapped Files. Storage Management: Mass-Storage Structure, Disk Structure, Scheduling and Management, RAID Structure. File and Input/Output Systems: Access Methods, Directory and Disk Structure; File- System Mounting, File Sharing, File-System Structure and Implementation; Directory Implementation, Allocation Methods, Free-Space Management, Efficiency and Performance; Recovery, I/O Hardware, Application I/O Interface, Kernel I/O Subsystem, Transforming I/O Requests to Hardware Operations. Security: Protection, Access Matrix, Access Control, Revocation of Access Rights, Program Threats, System and Network Threats; Cryptography as a Security Tool, User Authentication, Implementing Security Defenses. Virtual Machines: Types of Virtual Machines and Implementations; Virtualization. Linux Operating Systems: Design Principles, Kernel Modules, Process Management, Scheduling, Memory Management, File Systems, Input and Output; Interprocess Communication, Network Structure. 5 Windows Operating Systems: Design Principles, System Components, Terminal Services and Fast User Switching; File System, Networking. Distributed Systems: Types of Network based Operating Systems, Network Structure, Communication Structure and Protocols; Robustness, Design Issues, Distributed File Systems.

Software Process Models: Software Process, Generic Process Model – Framework Activity, Task Set and Process Patterns; Process Lifecycle, Prescriptive Process Models, Project Management, Component Based Development, Aspect-Oriented Software Development, Formal Methods, Agile Process Models – Extreme Programming (XP), Adptive Software Development, Scrum, Dynamic System Development Model, Feature Driven Development, Crystal, Web Engineering. Software Requirements: Functional and Non-Functional Requirements; Eliciting Requirements, Developing Use Cases, Requirement Analysis and Modelling; Requirements Review, Software Requirment and Specification (SRS) Document. Software Design: Abstraction, Architecture, Patterns, Separation of Concerns, Modularity, Information Hiding, Functional Independence, Cohesion and Coupling; Object-Oriented Design, Data Design, Architectural Design, User Interface Design, Component Level Design. Software Quality: McCall’s Quality Factors, ISO 9126 Quality Factors, Quality Control, Quality Assurance, Risk Management, Risk Mitigation, Monitoring and Management (RMMM); Software Reliability. Estimation and Scheduling of Software Projects: Software Sizing, LOC and FP based Estimations; Estimating Cost and Effort; Estimation Models, Constructive Cost Model (COCOMO), Project Scheduling and Staffing; Time-line Charts. Software Testing: Verification and Validation; Error, Fault, Bug and Failure; Unit and Integration Tesing; White-box and Black-box Testing; Basis Path Testing, Control Structure Testing, Deriving Test Cases, Alpha and Beta Testing; Regression Testing, Performance Testing, Stress Testing. Software Configuration Management: Change Control and Version Control; Software Reuse, Software Re-engineering, Reverse Engineering.

Data Structures: Arrays and their Applications; Sparse Matrix, Stacks, Queues, Priority Queues, Linked Lists, Trees, Forest, Binary Tree, Threaded Binary Tree, Binary Search Tree, AVL Tree, B Tree, B+ Tree, B* Tree, Data Structure for Sets, Graphs, Sorting and Searching Algorithms; Hashing. 6 Performance Analysis of Algorithms and Recurrences:Time and Space Complexities; Asymptotic Notation, Recurrence Relations. Design Techniques: Divide and Conquer; Dynamic Programming, Greedy Algorithms, Backtracking, Branch and Bound. Lower Bound Theory: Comparison Trees, Lower Bounds through Reductions. Graph Algorithms: Breadth-First Search, Depth-First Search, Shortest Paths, Maximum Flow, Minimum Spanning Trees. Complexity Theory: P and NP Class Problems; NP-completeness and Reducibility. Selected Topics: Number Theoretic Algorithms, Polynomial Arithmetic, Fast Fourier Transform, String Matching Algorithms. Advanced Algorithms: Parallel Algorithms for Sorting, Searching and Merging, Approximation Algorithms, Randomized Algorithms.

Theory of Computation: Formal Language, Non-Computational Problems, Diagonal Argument, Russels’s Paradox. Regular Language Models: Deterministic Finite Automaton (DFA), Non-Deterministic Finite Automaton (NDFA), Equivalence of DFA and NDFA, Regular Languages, Regular Grammars, Regular Expressions, Properties of Regular Language, Pumping Lemma, Non- Regular Languages, Lexical Analysis. Context Free Language: Pushdown Automaton (PDA), Non-Deterministic Pushdown Automaton (NPDA), Context Free Grammar, Chomsky Normal Form, Greibach Normal Form, Ambiguity, Parse Tree Representation of Derivation Trees, Equivalence of PDA’s and Context Free Grammars; Properties of Context Free Language. Turing Machines (TM): Standard Turing Machine and its Variations; Universal Turing Machines, Models of Computation and Church-Turing Thesis; Recursive and Recursively- Enumerable Languages; Context-Sensitive Languages, Unrestricted Grammars, Chomsky Hierarchy of Languages, Construction of TM for Simple Problems. Unsolvable Problems and Computational Complexity: Unsolvable Problem, Halting Problem, Post Correspondence Problem, Unsolvable Problems for Context-Free Languages, Measuring and Classifying Complexity, Tractable and Intractable Problems. Syntax Analysis: Associativity, Precedence, Grammar Transformations, Top Down Parsing, Recursive Descent Predictive Parsing, LL(1) Parsing, Bottom up Parsing, LR Parser, LALR(1) Parser. Semantic Analysis: Attribute Grammar, Syntax Directed Definitions, Inherited and Synthesized Attributes; Dependency Graph, Evaluation Order, S-attributed and L-attributed Definitions; Type-Checking. 7 Run Time System: Storage Organization, Activation Tree, Activation Record, Stack Allocation of Activation Records, Parameter Passing Mechanisms, Symbol Table. Intermediate Code Generation: Intermediate Representations, Translation of Declarations, Assignments, Control Flow, Boolean Expressions and Procedure Calls. Code Generation and Code Optimization: Control-flow, Data-flow Analysis, Local Optimization, Global Optimization, Loop Optimization, Peep-Hole Optimization, Instruction Scheduling.

Data Communication: Components of a Data Communication System, Simplex, Half- Duplex and Duplex Modes of Communication; Analog and Digital Signals; Noiseless and Noisy Channels; Bandwidth, Throughput and Latency; Digital and Analog Transmission; Data Encoding and Modulation Techniques; Broadband and Baseband Transmission; Multiplexing, Transmission Media, Transmission Errors, Error Handling Mechanisms. Computer Networks: Network Topologies, Local Area Networks, Metropolitan Area Networks, Wide Area Network, Wireless Networks, Internet. Network Models: Layered Architecture, OSI Reference Model and its Protocols; TCP/IP Protocol Suite, Physical, Logical, Port and Specific Addresses; Switching Techniques. Functions of OSI and TCP/IP Layers: Framing, Error Detection and Correction; Flow and Error Control; Sliding Window Protocol, HDLC, Multiple Access – CSMA/CD, CSMA/CA, Reservation, Polling, Token Passing, FDMA, CDMA, TDMA, Network Devices, Backbone Networks, Virtual LANs. IPv4 Structure and Address Space; Classful and Classless Addressing; Datagram, Fragmentation and Checksum; IPv6 Packet Format, Mapping Logical to Physical Address (ARP), Direct and Indirect Network Layer Delivery; Routing Algorithms, TCP, UDP and SCTP Protocols; Flow Control, Error Control and Congestion Control in TCP and SCTP. World Wide Web (WWW): Uniform Resource Locator (URL), Domain Name Service (DNS), Resolution - Mapping Names to Addresses and Addresses to Names; Electronic Mail Architecture, SMTP, POP and IMAP; TELNET and FTP. Network Security: Malwares, Cryptography and Steganography; Secret-Key Algorithms, Public-Key Algorithms, Digital Signature, Virtual Private Networks, Firewalls. Mobile Technology: GSM and CDMA; Services and Architecture of GSM and Mobile Computing; Middleware and Gateway for Mobile Computing; Mobile IP and Mobile Communication Protocol; Communication Satellites, Wireless Networks and Topologies; Cellular Topology, Mobile Adhoc Networks, Wireless Transmission and Wireless LANs; Wireless Geolocation Systems, GPRS and SMS. Cloud Computing and IoT: SaaS, PaaS, IaaS, Public and Private Cloud; Virtualization, Virtual Server, Cloud Storage, Database Storage, Resource Management, Service Level Agreement, Basics of IoT.

Approaches to AI: Turing Test and Rational Agent Approaches; State Space Representation of Problems, Heuristic Search Techniques, Game Playing, Min-Max Search, Alpha Beta Cutoff Procedures. Knowledge Representation: Logic, Semantic Networks, Frames, Rules, Scripts, Conceptual Dependency and Ontologies; Expert Systems, Handling Uncertainty in Knowledge. Planning: Components of a Planning System, Linear and Non Linear Planning; Goal Stack Planning, Hierarchical Planning, STRIPS, Partial Order Planning. Natural Language Processing: Grammar and Language; Parsing Techniques, Semantic Analysis and Prgamatics. Multi Agent Systems: Agents and Objects; Agents and Expert Systems; Generic Structure of Multiagent System, Semantic Web, Agent Communication, Knowledge Sharing using Ontologies, Agent Development Tools. Fuzzy Sets: Notion of Fuzziness, Membership Functions, Fuzzification and Defuzzification; Operations on Fuzzy Sets, Fuzzy Functions and Linguistic Variables; Fuzzy Relations, Fuzzy Rules and Fuzzy Inference; Fuzzy Control System and Fuzzy Rule Based Systems. Genetic Algorithms (GA): Encoding Strategies, Genetic Operators, Fitness Functions and GA Cycle; Problem Solving using GA. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN): Supervised, Unsupervised and Reinforcement Learning; Single Perceptron, Multi Layer Perceptron, Self Organizing Maps, Hopfield Network.


Concepts and elements of business environment: Economic environment- Economic systems, Economic policies(Monetary and fiscal policies); Political environment- Role of government in business; Legal environment- Consumer Protection Act, FEMA; Socio-cultural factors and their influence on business; Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)  Scope and importance of international business; Globalization and its drivers; Modes of entry into international business  Theories of international trade; Government intervention in international trade; Tariff and non-tariff barriers; India’s foreign trade policy 2  Foreign direct investment (FDI) and Foreign portfolio investment (FPI); Types of FDI, Costs and benefits of FDI to home and host countries; Trends in FDI; India’s FDI policy  Balance of payments (BOP): Importance and components of BOP  Regional Economic Integration: Levels of Regional Economic Integration; Trade creation and diversion effects; Regional Trade Agreements: European Union (EU), ASEAN, SAARC, NAFTA  International Economic institutions: IMF, World Bank, UNCTAD  World Trade Organisation (WTO): Functions and objectives of WTO; Agriculture Agreement; GATS; TRIPS; TRIMS

Basic accounting principles; concepts and postulates  Partnership Accounts: Admission, Retirement, Death, Dissolution and Insolvency of partnership firms  Corporate Accounting: Issue, forfeiture and reissue of shares; Liquidation of companies; Acquisition, merger, amalgamation and reconstruction of companies  Holding company accounts  Cost and Management Accounting: Marginal costing and Break-even analysis; Standard costing; Budgetary control; Process costing; Activity Based Costing (ABC); Costing for decision-making; Life cycle costing, Target costing, Kaizen costing and JIT  Financial Statements Analysis: Ratio analysis; Funds flow Analysis; Cash flow analysis  Human Resources Accounting; Inflation Accounting; Environmental Accounting  Indian Accounting Standards and IFRS  Auditing: Independent financial audit; Vouching; Verification ad valuation of assets and liabilities; Audit of financial statements and audit report; Cost audit  Recent Trends in Auditing: Management audit; Energy audit; Environment audit; Systems audit; Safety audit

Meaning and scope of business economics  Objectives of business firms  Demand analysis: Law of demand; Elasticity of demand and its measurement; Relationship between AR and MR  Consumer behavior: Utility analysis; Indifference curve analysis  Law of Variable Proportions: Law of Returns to Scale 3  Theory of cost: Short-run and long-run cost curves  Price determination under different market forms: Perfect competition; Monopolistic competition; Oligopoly- Price leadership model; Monopoly; Price discrimination  Pricing strategies: Price skimming; Price penetration; Peak load pricing

Overview of Indian financial system  Types of banks: Commercial banks; Regional Rural Banks (RRBs); Foreign banks; Cooperative banks  Reserve Bank of India: Functions; Role and monetary policy management  Banking sector reforms in India: Basel norms; Risk management; NPA management  Financial markets: Money market; Capital market; Government securities market  Financial Institutions: Development Finance Institutions (DFIs); Non-Banking Financial Companies (NBFCs); Mutual Funds; Pension Funds  Financial Regulators in India  Financial sector reforms including financial inclusion  Digitisation of banking and other financial services: Internet banking; mobile banking; Digital payments systems  Insurance: Types of insurance- Life and Non-life insurance; Risk classification and management; Factors limiting the insurability of risk; Re-insurance; Regulatory framework of insurance- IRDA and its role

Scope and sources of finance; Lease financing  Cost of capital and time value of money  Capital structure  Capital budgeting decisions: Conventional and scientific techniques of capital budgeting analysis  Working capital management; Dividend decision: Theories and policies  Risk and return analysis; Asset securitization  International monetary system  Foreign exchange market; Exchange rate risk and hedging techniques  International financial markets and instruments: Euro currency; GDRs; ADRs  International arbitrage; Multinational capital budgeting

Measures of central tendency  Measures of dispersion  Measures of skewness  Correlation and regression of two variables  Probability: Approaches to probability; Bayes’ theorem  Probability distributions: Binomial, poisson and normal distributions  Research: Concept and types; Research designs  Data: Collection and classification of data  Sampling and estimation: Concepts; Methods of sampling - probability and non- probability methods; Sampling distribution; Central limit theorem; Standard error; Statistical estimation  Hypothesis testing: z-test; t-test; ANOVA; Chi–square test; Mann-Whitney test (U- test); Kruskal-Wallis test (H-test); Rank correlation test  Report writing

Principles and functions of management  Organization structure: Formal and informal organizations; Span of control  Responsibility and authority: Delegation of authority and decentralization  Motivation and leadership: Concept and theories  Corporate governance and business ethics  Human resource management: Concept, role and functions of HRM; Human resource planning; Recruitment and selection; Training and development; Succession planning  Compensation management: Job evaluation; Incentives and fringe benefits  Performance appraisal including 360 degree performance appraisal  Collective bargaining and workers’ participation in management  Personality: Perception; Attitudes; Emotions; Group dynamics; Power and politics; Conflict and negotiation; Stress management  Organizational Culture: Organizational development and organizational change

UGC NET exam pattern

UGC NET exam pattern comprises two papers- Paper 1 and 2. As per the prescribed UGC NET 2024 exam pattern, both papers contain multiple-choice questions (MCQs). Candidates need to complete both papers in a single duration of three hours. Have a look at the detailed UGC NET exam pattern 2024 below..

UGC NET Paper Number of Questions Marks
PAPER 1 50 100
PAPER 2 100 100
TOTAL 150 300

Books To Be Referred

Topics Best Book for UGC NET Paper 1 Author/Publisher
Numerical and Arithmetical Ability Quantitative Aptitude N.K.Singh, Upkar Prakashan Publication
Test of Comprehension and English Language Wren and Martin: High School English Grammar & Composition S.Chand Publication

Key Topics

Topics Asked Number of Questions Asked Difficulty Level
Teaching Aptitude 4-5 Easy to Moderate
Research Aptitude 2-3 Easy to Moderate
Reading Comprehension 5 Moderate
Communication 3 Easy to Moderate
Mathematics 2-3 Moderate
Logical Reasoning 4 Moderate
Data Interpretation 3 Moderate to Difficult
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) 4-5 Moderate
People & Environment 3-5 Easy to Moderate
Higher Education System Governance Polity/ Administration & Current Affairs 4-5 Moderate
Total Questions 50 Questions of 2 Marks each Moderate / 35 to 41 Questions
Candidates can get the UGC NET Last 10 Year’s Trend Analysis above in the article. It will give you topic wise number of questions asked in the last 10 year papers.
it is mandatory to appear for both papers of the UGC NET (National Eligibility Test). Paper 1 and Paper 2 are both important components of the UGC NET examination, and candidates are required to attempt both papers to be considered for eligibility for the post of Assistant Professor or for the award of Junior Research Fellowship (JRF)
The UGC NET marking scheme is straightforward to understand. For correct answers, candidates are awarded +2 marks and for wrong answers, there is no negative marking in the exam. It is crucial for candidates to understand the UGC NET Exam pattern and marking scheme in order to attempt the paper properly and get a high score.

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